Until recently, the Netherlands was so comfortable with its test-and-trace plan that it found no urgency to make wearing face masks mandatory.
But in the past month, a surge in new cases has catapulted the per capita infection rate into the top 10 in the world, with a weekly infection rate of around 160 per 100,000 population, as that plan has run into trouble.
On Wednesday, the Dutch parliament was debating an emergency law that would give government the power to make wearing face masks mandatory in public places if it chose to, as the daily rate of new infections reached a new record high of nearly 5,000.
After the first wave of infections waned in May, the Netherlands worked to boost testing capacity, promising they would be available to all.
The strategy was to find hotspots fast, and isolate people quickly to stop contagion.
Laboratories said they had increased capacity by two-thirds to 51,000 tests per day.
But last month, tests were again limited to people with serious health issues, and Prime Minister Mark Rutte acknowledged capacity was far below demand.