The British Prime Minister lashed out at the EU saying the move was necessary because the bloc had refused to a “revolver off the table” in trade talks.
MPs gave their initial approval to the so-called second reading parliamentary vote on the Internal Market Bill by 340 votes to 263.
A wrecking amendment was defeated shortly beforehand, though more will follow as Boris Johnson faces a growing rebellion in his party.
The EU says Johnson's bill would collapse trade talks and propel the United Kingdom towards a messy Brexit while former British leaders have warned that breaking the law is a step too far that undermines the country's image.
Johnson, though, said it was essential to counter "absurd" threats from Brussels including that London put up trade barriers between Britain and Northern Ireland and impose a food blockade — steps he said threatened the United Kingdom's unity.
"The EU still have not taken this revolver off the table," Johnson told parliament before the vote.
"What we cannot do now is tolerate a situation where our EU counterparts seriously believe that they have the power to break up our country."